Paper Good Governance(makalah Good Governance)


A. Background
The realization of good governance (good governance) is key to the success of the nation in overcoming various problems and challenges faced. It required the state officials who have the capacity to implement the values ​​and principles of good governance is.
The concept of governance began to develop in the early 1990s was marked by the perspective (point of view) are new to the role of government (government) in running the system of government. This view arose because of government's role considered to be too big and too powerful, so people do not have the flexibility and room to grow (Basuki and Inter Press Service, 2006:8). The government has found it to be an institution that most know and understand what is desired by society, so many policies are made without prior notice to the public discourse, or without feeling the need to hear the aspirations of the community. This ultimately makes the policy is top down and people can only live to accept it, act like this would make support for the government of the community decreased.
The term governance in English means "the act, fact, manner of governing", which means it is a process activity. In Sedarmayanti Kooiman (2004:2) argues that governance is "... a series of social and political interaction process between the government and society in various fields related to public interests and government intervention on those interests." Basically, the term governance is not just a means of governance as an activity, but also refers to the meaning of management, direction, management, and coaching organization. And based from what is disclosed by Kooiman above, it is understood that community involvement in the governance system is the spirit contained in the concept of good governance.
B. Issues
Based on the description above, this paper will specifically address the issue:
1. How is the Government's policy to realize good governance preformance
2. How do the people's role in achieving good governance, and
3. Barriers to achieving good governance.


A. Achieve Good Governance
Embodiment of good governance (good governance), which principally target was the realization of governance: professional, legal berkepastian, transparent, accountable, credible, clean and free of corruption; sensitive and responsive to all interests and aspirations based on ethics, spirit of service, and public accountability, and, integrity, dedication in the struggle of a mission to realize the ideals and objectives of state (Mustopadidjaja, 2003: 261).
One of the actualization of the values ​​and principles "GG" is transparency. Apparatus and public management system must develop a system of openness and accountability. Be open and accountable to encourage the leaders and the entire human resources in it play a role in the practice and instituting codes of conduct in question, so as to make themselves as a community role model, and was conducted as part of the implementation of responsibility and accountability to the community and country. Efforts to empower communities and businesses, improved and partnerships, in addition to: require disclosure of government bureaucracy; also requires that decisive steps in reducing regulations and procedures that inhibit their creativity; offered an opportunity for people to be able to participate in the process of regulatory policy, implementation , and construction supervision. Empowerment and openness would be more encouraging; accountability in the utilization of resources, and the decisions of development are actually directed according to priorities and needs of the community, as well as real and fair elections conducted according to the aspirations and interests of the community.
Good governance is an effort to change the character of the government not to work alone without regard to the interests or aspirations. In the system of governance to implement good governance, the public no longer viewed as an object, but viewed as subjects who helped color the programs and policies of government. System of government that makes society as the subject only in a democratic system of government. Thus the principles embodied in good governance will only grow on the government to deploy the system of democracy. And basically, the goal of good governance which is actually promote the establishment of democracy through the reforms, especially in the areas of government. Thus, the correlation between good governance with democracy is the ideal partner to realize prosperity in society, both are interrelated and inseparable.
B. Role of the People in Making Good Governance
Civil Society as a paradigm and an alternative approach to reconstruct the system of state administration and nation-building, determining the faith, devotion, and keseimbangkan position and role of government and society, as well as consistency in realizing the values ​​and principles of civil society, including law enforcement, the application of principles and joint- joint sovereignty of the people in the organization of the state, respect for opposition and dissent, and uphold human rights and the rights of citizens in all walks of life of the society, nation and the state. Within this context, good governance as a system of organization and management of government, is expected to appear with simple organizational structure of governance, appropriate policy agenda, a clear institutional division of tasks, the authority of a balanced, professional personnel, efficient public pelayanaan procedures, institutional oversight steady, and a strict system of accountability. While the management of government should be able to systematically develop and apply the values ​​and principles of good governance, and have the vision, mission, strategy, and appropriate policies in the face of the nation's problems.
In this case, "HR in the organization of government", both career bureaucrats would also political appointees, is expected to animate his role in carrying out "the mission of the national struggle", and able to perform their duties as public servants and civil servants responsible, wise, effective, efficient, fair, and polite, both in providing services to people directly, and in "management policies" in the face of the nation's problems and in the struggle to realize the ideals and objectives of the nation state. Accordingly, every citizen and community members are expected to be more aware of the rights, obligations and responsibilities in the life of the nation, in the struggle to realize the ideals and common goals in the state.
C. Obstructing Achieve Good Governance
In our country people are always obsessed to the implementation of good governance, namely government penyelanggaraan effektive governance, efficient, transparent, accountable and responsible. Effective implementation of targeted means in accordance with established strategic planning, efficient implementation is done saving arrtinya efficient and effective, transparent means any policy pursued by the organizers of the country is open all people can do the direct supervision so that the results achieved so everyone can provide an assessment of its performance, accountable government means that organizers are responsible for the policies set forth, and accountable to all citizens at its performance every year ahir governance. In my opinion most of all the factors can not be implemented by public sector officials in terms of performance effectivitas can be seen buildings made much neglected in the sense that it can not be used, because it is not yet the time needed while the agency had designed it because the budget already approved by the legislative. Road rehabilitation is done every year since the results of rehabilitation and even then it only has the highest durability of 4 months this shows the quality of the physical building is inadequate, whether because of limited funds, or indeed bestek made not as it should be. But if it means a waste of limited funds is a waste of money that is not useful. From financial accounting glasses technically there were three main issues which led to good governance is still far from reality. First, the absence of a reliable accounting systems needed to support the implementation of the recording and reporting, led to weak internal control in local government. Second, the limited personnel in areas of educational background in accounting, while also slightly qualified accounting graduates who are interested to develop the profession in the administration area because of the low compensation offered to them. Third, the absence of public sector standards of financial accounting standard, it is important for making reference to the financial statements as a control mechanism. Process transparency is still difficult to implement due to financial accountability in by naked eye can not be displayed, the amount of liability that is engineered due to fictitious expenses and is certainly difficult for public officials to account for more transparency. Therefore the Government in the accountability report is full of trick-trick of engineering remain on how the public diplomacy officer with members of the legislature or how they negotiate. Tax mafia case highlights the Council of Representatives to use the right of inquiry suggests the inability of public officials to perform duties in the field of taxation transparency and accountability to the public. Centuri bank case that resulted in losses to the state until now has not been completed, so the dream to realize a clean government not being achieved, how the government will be authoritative. Social sector is a record for us the blasphemy that occurred recently, as well as the occurrence of an anarchic actions resulting from defamation of religions, including even this government to realize how difficult governance good governance. The number of cases of encroachment of land by the developer through the permit issued by public officials without considering the people's rights which should be well spread on human rights violations. Conversely too much happening annexation of land and encroachment of land by the people who actually due to weak supervision and enforcement by the relevant public officials.
A. Conclusion
In order to achieve Good Governance and Civil Society have to touch the pillars supporting the overall and substantially covers the element of "organization, management, and human resources" that are based and focused on values ​​and principles of Civil Society and Good Governance. In respect of the state and development of our nation, it is a manifestation of the spiritual dimensions that must be practiced consistently in the administration of state and nation-building by both the state apparatus would any nation's citizens.
            Values ​​and principles of Good Governance and Civil Society should be committed and attached to each individual and the institution according to position and their respective roles in the life of the state. In the development of bureaucracy, the function of those values ​​is a code of conduct in attitude, thinking, and acting, both individually and institutionally. Without consensus, competence and commitment, Civil Society and Good Governance may not be realized as a system of state administration and nation building.
B. Suggestion

In order to realize good governance (good governance and clean) in addition to the award (reward) to the role of the community, the award GOI officials need to be given legal protection. With the system of giving awards to Pera as well as community and government officials in arapkan aka the increased motivation for achieving good governance (pemeriahan good and clean).


Alijoyo, Anthony, et al. 2003. Corporate Governance Challenges and Opportunities for the Business Community Indonesia. Jakarta: PT Prenhallindo.
Basuki and Inter Press Service. 2006. Strengthening Good Governance-Based Governance. Malang: SPOD-FE UB.
Hanafi, Imam. 2001. Good Governance, Democracy and Justice Top Resources. Journal of Public Administration Vol. II, No.1. Malang: LPD FIA UB
Sedarmayanti. 2004. Good Governance, Good Governance, Part Two. Bandung: Mandar Maju.
Wijaya, Andy. 2007. Accountability of Local Governance Reform in an Era of Good Governance and Regional Autonomy. Journal of Public Administration Vol. VIII, No. 2. Malang: LPD FIA UB
Posted on 02.46.00 / 0 comments / Read More


Understanding WEP - WAP

Understanding WEP
Wireless security with the methods of Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
WEP is a security & encryption standard first used on the wireless, WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) is a method of securing wireless networks, also called Shared Key Authentication. Shared Key Authentication is the authentication method that requires the use of WEP. WEP encryption uses a key that is inserted (by the administrator) to a client or access point. This key must match the given access point to the client, with the included client to authenticate to the access point, and has a standard 802.11b WEP.

Shared Key Authentication Process:
1. Client has asked the association to the access point, this step is the same as the Open System Authentication.
2. Access point sends challenge text to the client transparently.
3. Client will respond by encrypting the challenge text using the WEP key and sends back to the access point.
4. Access point responded to client feedback, access point will perform to decrypt encrypted responses from the client to verify that the encrypted challenge text using the appropriate WEP key. In this process, the access point will determine whether the client has given the appropriate WEP key. If the WEP key provided by the client are correct, then the access point will respond positively and directly to the client authentication. However, if the client entered the WEP key is incorrect, then the access point and client may respond negatively to will not be authenticated. Thus, the client will not be authenticated and not associated.

WEP has many flaws, among others:
1. The problem of weak keys, the RC4 algorithm used can be solved.
2. WEP uses a static key
3. Problem initialization vector (IV) WEP
4. Problem of message integrity Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC-32)
WEP consists of two levels, namely 64 bit key, and 128 bits. Actually, the secret key in the WEP key 64 bit only 40 bit, 24bit is an Initialization Vector (IV). Likewise, the 128-bit WEP, 104bit secret key consists of.
WEP weaknesses include:
1. The attack on the weaknesses of the initialization vector (IV), often called the FMS attack. FMS stands for the third name the inventor of weakness IV Fluhrer, Mantin, and Shamir. This attack was done by collecting a weak IV as much as possible. The more weak IV is obtained, the sooner discovered the key that is used

2. Get a unique IV data obtained through the packet to be processed for WEP key cracking process more quickly. This method is called chopping attack, first discovered by h1kari. This technique only requires a unique IV thus reducing the need for IV are weak in WEP cracking.

3. Both of the above attacks require considerable time and packet, to shorten the time, the hackers usually do traffic injection. Traffic Injection is often done by collecting the ARP packet and then sends back to the access point. This resulted in the collection of initial vectors is easier and faster. Unlike the first and second, to attack traffic injection, required specification of tools and applications that start rarely found in stores, ranging from chipsets, firmware version, and versions of drivers, and not infrequently have to do the patching of drivers and applications.

Excess WEP
When users want to connect the laptop, the user does not change any settings, everything is automatic, and when you first about browsing, the user will be prompted to enter a username and password
Almost all wireless components already support this protocol.

Understanding WPA
Wireless Apliccation abbreviated protocol WAP is an open international standard for applications that use wireless communication. The main objective for building applications that can access the Internet from mobile phones or PDAs.

Abbreviated as WAP.
Standard protocol for wireless applications (such as those used in mobile phones). WAP is a protocol or a technique messaging service that allows a digital phone or a mobile terminal having a WAP facility, see / read the contents of a site on the internet in a special text format. This web site should be a site with a WAP facility.

This technology is the result of cooperation between industries to create an open standards (open standards) and based on Internet standards, as well as several protocols that have been optimized for wireless environments.

This technology works in text mode with a speed of about 9.6 kbps. Later also developed the GPRS protocol which has several advantages over WAP.

Wireless Application Protocol is a protocol development of wireless protocol data already exist. Phone.com created a version of the standard HTML (HyperText Markup Language) Internet protocols specifically designed to transfer information between mobile networks efficiently. Wireless terminal with HDML (Handheld Device Markup Language) microbrowser, and Handheld Device Transport Protocol (HDTP) from Phone.com connected with UP.Link Server Suite is so connected to the Internet or intranet where the information needed to be. The technology was later known as WAP.

Wireless security with the methods Accsess WI-FI Protected (WPA)
Is common knowledge if WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) is no longer able to be relied on to provide a wireless connection (wireless) are safe from nosy people act or want to take advantage of what we have-known hackers jargon. Not long after the development process of WEP, the fragility of the cryptography aspects emerge.
Various studies have been conducted on WEP and obtained the conclusion that although a wireless network protected by WEP, third parties (hackers) can still be breaking into. A hacker who has a makeshift wireless equipment and software equipment used to collect and analyze enough data, can know the encryption key used.
Addressing the weaknesses that are owned by WEP, has developed a new security technique known as WPA (WiFi Protected Access). WPA technique is a model compatible with the IEEE 802.11i draft standard specification. This technique has several goals in its design, the sturdy, interoperates, can be used to replace WEP, can be implemented on a home or corporate user, and is available to the public as quickly as possible. The existence of WPA "replace" WPE, is it true feeling of "calm" is obtained? There are many pros and cons comments about it. Some say, WPA has a stronger encryption mechanism. However, there are pessimistic because of the communication path used is not safe, where the engineering man-in-the-middle can be used to outsmart the process of sending data. In order for WPA goal is achieved, at least two major security development done. WPA technique was established to provide development data encryption WEP is a weak point, and provides user authentication, which seems lost on developing the concept of WEP.
WPA technique was designed to replace WEP security method, which uses static security key, using TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) which can be dynamically changed after 10,000 packets of data transmitted. TKIP protocol will take the primary key as a starting point which is then regularly changed so there is no encryption key is used twice. Background process is automatically carried out without being noticed by the user. By performing encryption key regeneration approximately every five minutes, the WiFi network that uses WPA has been slowing hackers who try to make key cracking earlier.
Although using the standard 64 and 128 bit encryption, like those of technology WEP, WPA TKIP making becomes more effective as an encryption mechanism. However, the problem of decrease in throughput as complained by the users of such wireless networks do not meet the standard answer from the documents sought. Therefore, the problems associated with the throughput is very dependent on the hardware you have, the more specific is the chipset used. The assumption at this time, if the throughput reduction occurs in the implementation of WEP, the rate of decline will be much greater if the WPA and TKIP implemented although some products claim that the decline in throughput has been overcome, of course, with greater use of the chipset capabilities and capacity.
WPA authentication using 802.1x and EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol). Taken together, these implementations will provide a solid framework on the user authentication process. Framework will be done utilizing a centralized authentication server, such as RADIUS, to authenticate users before joining the wireless network. Also introduced mutual authentication, so users of wireless networks did not knowingly join another network that might steal its network identity.
Mechanism AES encryption (Advanced Encryption Standard) is likely to be adopted WPA with a user authentication mechanism. However, AES is apparently not necessary because the predicted TKIP encryption is able to provide a framework that is very tough, although not yet known for how long the tough can survive.

Target users (authentication key distribution)

• WPA-Personal: Also referred to as WPA-PSK (pre-shared key) mode. Designed for home and small office network and does not require server authentication. Each wireless network device to authenticate with the access point using 256-bit keys are equal.

• WPA-Enterprise: Also referred to as WPA-802.1x mode, and sometimes only WPA (as opposed to WPA-PSK). Designed for corporate networks, and requires a RADIUS authentication server. This requires a more complicated setup, but provide additional security (eg protection against dictionary attacks). An Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is used for authentication, which come in different flavors (eg EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-SIM).
Posted on 21.24.00 / 0 comments / Read More



Geographic Location QATAR
1. Area: 11,437 km2
2. Topographic / Borders: Persian Gulf (North, East and West)
                                        Saudi Arabia and the UAE (South)

3. Large cities / Travel: Doha - State of Qatar Capital
                          Mesaieed: 38 Km
                          Al-Khor: 58 Km
                          Ras Laffan: 85 Km
                          Madinat Al-Shamal: 112 Km
                           Dukhan: 89 Km
                          Abu Samra: 98 Km

4. I k l i m: Tropical
                  Summer: June-September
                  Winter: October to May

1. Political parties System
Qatar to date has no political party. People's political participation is channeled through the Municipal Council which was formed in March 1999. Plan elections to elect members of parliament are expected to use direct selection, rather than by choosing the party to be formed before elections are held.
2. Shura Council
In Qatar's political structure does not clearly mention of Legislative / Parliament, but is better known is the Shura Council Institutions. In accordance with its function, as long as this Shura Council has held consultations with the Government in various matters, such as the discussion of the Municipal Council elections (Central Municipal Council / CMC) directly through the general pemillihan followed also by women, and revision of the Constitution while. Qatar Shura Council is chaired by Mohammed bin Mubarak Al-Kholefi.
3. Government System
Law of the State of Qatar a new force on June 8, 2005 and stated that Qatar is an Arab country and sovereign independence, Islam is the official religion and Shari'ah (Islamic Law) is the basic source of legislation. Democracy is the basis for the system of government.
Government to implement the sovereignty of all territories and territorial waters up to the international border. Qatar has the sovereign right to refuse or withdraw from any part of the territory or waters. The government is responsible in maintaining the integrity, security and stability of countries also use all potential resources to defend every act of aggression.
As per Law, Head of Government is the Qatar Crown Prince Amir with his deputy, and assisted by a Cabinet headed by Prime Minister, so that the Prime Minister is not the supreme head of the Government, but it is Amir's servant in the Government.
The government is believed to control and supervise the national economy in an effort to enhance economic development through planning and technical cooperation with international institutions with experience. Private ownership, capital and labor as a form of basic social infrastructure of a country regarded as a personal right, guaranteed and regulated by the Act.
The government also gives freedom in trying as long as it does not conflict with the interests of the state. Every effort intended to give equal opportunities to every citizen on the basis of social justice is strengthened by the Act.
The government guarantees the human rights of every citizen, including the right of residence, freedom of press and information as well as private property. These rights can not be restricted unless the practice of such rights contrary to the Act or the public interest. The Constitution requires that each and every citizen to comply with public order and respect for moral rules and social customs.
4. Justice System
At first Qatari judicial system has two types of justice systems, namely: Civil Justice (Civil Court) that decided cases of civil and trade, and the Religious (Sharia Court) decided a criminal case and hudud (Syariah Islamiah). In accordance with the drastic changes made to the Amir of Qatar to adjust the new constitution, especially in the field of Justice and the law, courts in Qatar are now under one roof and have the parts that deal with judicial proceedings in khusus.Tingkatan also increases, which previously only recognize the court of first instance and appeal level, there is now a court of cassation.
Judges at all levels of courts appointed by the Amir and decide all matters on behalf of the Amir, and Amir directly responsible. High Council of Justice who serves handle matters relating to administrative judges.
Other legal devices, the prosecutor initially is a department under the Ministry of Home Affairs which is equivalent to the police, the prosecutors who have police powers as they deem fit, but starting in 2003, along with the reforms that encouraged Amir to adjustment to the new Constitution, now Attorney institutions is an independent institution is located and bertanggungn reporting directly to the Amir.
With the change of status, now Attorney (Public Presecution) may conduct an investigation, inquiry and inspection to anyone, including against members of the cabinet, as has happened several times in the year 2005.
5. Power in the system Keamiran
In accordance with the Constitution a new system of governmental power in Qatar is hereditary within the Al-Thani family, which transferred power from father to son who had been appointed earlier to the Crown Prince. If Amir does not have children (especially boys), Amir has the right to appoint a Crown Prince of Al-Thani family in consultation with the Family Council.
The Crown Prince was appointed by the Amir of his own son in accordance with the new Constitution and the title of "His Highness The Heir Apparent". Amir is the holder of supreme executive power with the assistance of Crown Prince and the Council of Ministers. Amir is also the supreme legislative authority, assisted by the Shura Council. However, the new Constitution explicitly set all the rights and obligations of Amir of Qatar, and other laws of the Cabinet are also set all the rights and duties of the minister.

State of Qatar is fully follow the system of free economy, and in 1994 officially became a member of the 121 World Trade Organization (WTO). Qatar country trading partners that dominate the markets, its imports were U.S., Japan, Britain, Germany, Italy and France, while the trading partner with Far East countries associated with the export of petroleum, LNG, petrochemical, iron and fertilizer.
State of Qatar is a small country in the Middle East region which has abundant natural resources such as petroleum and natural gas. With billions of dollars of investment has been done for oil field development projects and natural gas have given Qatar a very positive impact on the acceptance of state GDP.
Seen from Qatar's GDP in 2004 reached USD 28.45 billion with a growth rate of 20.5%, has resulted in GDP per capita reached $ 40,000, and it is certain that the GDP per capita pda Qatar in 2007 will reach $ 45,000.
Through the success of Qatar's GDP per capita reached $ 40,000 in 2004, after diversifying the economy and monetary policy in developing oil and gas industry, has put Qatar on the top state in the economy Gulf states (GCC) with the rate of economic growth on average 7%.
According to sources from Qatar Petroleum Qatar Petroleum that the reserves in September 2004 reached 14.5 billion barrels and will not be discharged exploited over a period of 59 years. While natural gas reserves stood at 900 trillion cubic feet will not be exhausted exploited over a period of 200 years. From the export of petroleum and LNG Qatar has experienced a surplus on the balance of foreign trade, along with the increasing demand for LNG supplies and rising world oil prices.
Along with abundant natural resources of petroleum and natural gas has, has prompted the Government of Qatar to develop some projects in the areas of LNG, among others: Qatar Liquefied Natural Gas Company (Qatargas); Qatar Liquefied Natural Gas Company II (Qatargas II); Qatar Liquefied III Natural Gas Company (Qatargas III); Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas Company (RasGas), Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas Company II (RasGas II), Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas Company III (RasGas III); the Dolphine Project; Al Khalej Gas Project (Enhanced gas utilization project); Oryx GTL Project: Pearl GTL Project; and ConocoPhillips GTL Project.
While several other projects related to raw material gas has been developed by the Government of Qatar, among others: Qatar fertilizer Company (Qafco); Qatar fertilizer IV Company (Qafco-4); Qatar Fuel Additives Company (QAFAC), Qatar Petrochemical Company (QAPCO); Qatar Vinyl Company (QVC), Qatar Chemical Company (QChem); Qatar Chemical Company II (Q-Chem II); Qatofin; Ras Laffan Ethylene Cracker (RLEC); Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) Project; Aluminium Smelter Project.
Several industrial projects in Qatar which will be built or under construction are as follows:
a. Dolphin Project. This project commenced in May 2005 and is expected to start operating in 2006. This project will supply as many as 2 billion cubic feet of gas per day.
b. Oryx GTL Project, will produce 34,000 barrels of oil per day, namely in the form of naphtha and diesel. Oryx GTL is expected to start production in 2005.
c. Ras Laffan Condensate Refinery, will produce 140,000 barrels per day of condensate materials into diesel and other oils.
d. Al Khaleej Gas Project, will develop the existing oil reserves, to supply gas as much as 1.75 billion cubic feet per day, for domestic consumption and export. The project is expected to be operational in 2005.
e. Ras Laffan Ethylene Cracker-2, which is the largest in the world, will produce 1.5 million metric tons of ethylene per year and be operational in 2007.
f. Methanol Plant, designed to produce 1,500 tons of methanol per day and is planned to be operational in 2008.
g. Helium Plant, planned to supply as many as 10-15% of the market hellium world, by supplying 660 million cubic feet of helium and is expected to reach 1 billion standard cubic feet in 2010.
h. Shell GTL, will have two phases, which will produce 140,000 barrels of GTL products per day.
Posted on 01.32.00 / 0 comments / Read More

Period Japanese leadership


Jepun called Nippon or Nihon in Japanese, which means "rising sun country" refers to the relative position of Japan in eastern Asia.

Period Japanese leadership :

• Tokugawa Period
Nations who have been involved in civil war for about 100 years (the Sengoku period / Warring States Period, 1467-1573) almost feel the unity in the Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582) and Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537-1598). But it became a reality when leyasu Tokugawa (1543-1616) managed to beat its competitors through a battle at Sekigahara.

• Meiji and Taisho Periods
The last period of the Tokugawa tinged with opinion split between those who wanted to open the country and those who want to keep their political entourage shut down after the United States Navy under the command of Commodore Matthew Perry anchored in the Gulf of Uraga in 1853 and demanded Japan to open his ports to foreign trade country. Differences of opinion was ultimately won by those who want to open up. This is manifested in a reform movement to restore the Emperor as the holders of political power (the Meiji Restoration). In this period of progress, both in economics, education, technology imports, and the armed forces advanced rapidly. Meiji Period is the period where Japan as the first Asian country to introduce a constitutional life, namely the establishment of the Meiji Constitution in 1889. This constitution modeled after the Prussian Constitution declared the country in which the supreme power in the hands of the Emperor and not in the hands of the people. State becomes very large in the Meiji period became more lax during the Emperor Taisho (1912-1926). Political life is growing very rapidly so that the period is referred to as Taisho Democracy as people gain experience in running a democracy.

• Showa Period
In this period divided into two periods, namely the Early Showa (1926-1945) and Later Showa (1945-1989). Early Showa period of decline is a democratic political life which was pioneered during the Taisho because the military was to exploit the weaknesses of the Meiji Constitution. Later Showa period is a period in which the Japanese political practices in the life of a relatively stable parliamentary democracy and the economy managed to rebuild itself in a relatively short time.

• Heisei Period
This period is characterized by a less stable government after the end of Liberal dominance Democrtic Party (LDP). Constitution of 1947 also did not escape even though the reform efforts at that time Japan was occupied by the United States. Until now Heisei period has not expired and has continued until today.
The Constitution (Constitution) of Japan which came into force in 1947, is based on three principles: popular sovereignty, respect for human rights, and rejection of war. The constitution imposed a system of parliamentary form of government, where the legislative power (Diet or Parliament), executive (cabinet), and judicial (courts) and works by separate check and balance one another.
 LEGISLATIVE BODIES (the Japanese Parliament, the Diet - Diet Kokkai or National)
"Japan's Parliament is the highest organization in the power (authority) state, and the sole organ of the legislators." Japanese Parliament or the National Diet consisting of two rooms (council), the lower house (House of Representatives) and assemblies High (House of Concillors). Members of both houses are elected and represent the entire population. The number of seats available since 2000 for the House of Commons is 480, while for the upper house is 247.
Members of the House of Commons elected by district electoral system, called System of District Medium (Chusen Kyoku-Sei), where a district represented by 3-5 people. While members of the Upper House elected by the two systems in different ways, ie 100 people were selected based on a proportional system balance and the rest are selected based on the district system of election districts established in 47 prefectures (like provinces). The constitution stated that a person is not allowed to become members of both houses, or in other words, a person may only be one council member only. Among both houses, the House of Commons of higher social status, especially in the problem of making the bill, making the state budget, ratification of foreign treaties, and the appointment of prime minister, which in this matter the House of Lords to act more as entities in order to ensure consideration in depth discussion.

Governance in Japan adopted parliamentary cabinet system. Executive power in the hands of a cabinet composed of the prime minister and the ministers are collectively responsible to the Diet. Position and duties of the cabinet in addition to performing administrative tasks are:
• Minding the law fairly, conduct affairs of State.
• Managing the affairs of State.
• Finalize agreements. Nevertheless, it must previously obtain, or depending on the circumstances, then the approval of the Diet.
• Taking care of civilian agencies, in accordance with the standards held by the law.
• Prepare budget and state revenues, and submit to the Diet.
• State enactment of Cabinet decisions.
• Decide on general amnesty, special amnesty, the reduction of penalties, delaying the implementation of law and restoration of rights.

JUDICIARY (Judicial)
Judicial power rests with the Supreme Court and lower courts, such as the high courts, district courts and summary courts. The Supreme Court consists of Chief Justice and 14 other judges, all appointed by the cabinet. Most cases handled by district courts are concerned. There are also summary court, which handles cases such as traffic violations, etc..

In accordance with the Constitution of 1947, the emperor is the symbol of the country and the unity of the people. Emperor sermonial just doing tasks listed in the Constitution, such as inaugurating the Prime Minister and Chairman of the Supreme Court, each designated by the Diet and the Cabinet, as well as on behalf of the people doing tasks such as announcing the law.

Prime Minister heads the cabinet. The Prime Minister has the power as stated in the Constitution, which filed a bill on behalf of the cabinet to the parliament, elect and dismiss members of cabinet including ministers of state, but it also has the authority to oversee the various branches of the administration .
Posted on 00.40.00 / 0 comments / Read More




A. History of Establishment

The UN has set up an Economic Commission as an arm of the world organization was in the process of reconstruction of postwar Asia. ESCAP was originally founded on March 28, 1947 in Shanghai by the name of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (Economic Commission for Asia and Far East / ECAFE) under the authority of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
In 1949 ECAFE move its headquarters to Bangkok, after the Communist government came to power in China. In 1951, ECOSOC to give a broader mandate to ECAFE which soon established itself as a foundation for regional cooperation.
In order to raise the responsibility of the Secretariat in the field of social development as well as to reflect the geographic space and their activities, in 1974 ECAFE turned into ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific).
United Nations ESCAP is the regional agency for the Asia Pacific region. Since the initial establishment of ESCAP, was intended to help the economic reconstruction of post-war countries in the region and to reflect on aspects of economic and social development as well as geographic locations of its member countries.
In the late 70s, ESCAP began to decentralize its operations are reflected in the orientation of this country which now consists of 53 members of ESCAP member states and 9 countries as an "Associate Member".
In 1977 ESCAP's mandate was extended by the UN General Assembly became one of the five UN Regional Commission in the field of Economic and Social Development. Since May 2001 chaired by ESCAP Kim Hak Su of South Korea and in the previous period, April 1995-March 2000, ESCAP Secretariat led by Dr. Adrianus Mooy of Indonesia.

B. Functions, Duties and Role of ESCAP

The function of ESCAP are:
• Promote social and economic development through regional cooperation and integration and sub-regional
• As the main forum of social and economic development within the framework of the UN system in the Asia-Pacific
• Formulating and promoting development assistance activities and projects, according to the needs and priorities of the region, as well as acting as executing agency for relevant operational projects
• Providing substantive and secretariat services and documentation to the Commission as the supreme body and the bodies subsidernya
• Conduct studies, research and other activities in accordance with the terms of reference of the Commission
• Provide advisory services to its member governments on request
• Develop and implement programs of technical cooperation
• Coordinate the activities of ESCAP with the activities of specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations and other UN agencies.

In enhancing economic cooperation and friendship among countries in the region, UN ESCAP as a regional body is holding an important role.
The role is reflected in the ESCAP main tasks are:
1. Improving economic standards in the countries of the Asia Pacific region, through increasing economic cooperation among countries in the region by providing assistance and activities that include the research and planning-planning that is directed to activities to coordinate economic development activities in the Asia Pacific region.
2. Assist member states in particular are still lagging behind in the utilization of technology, so it can catch up through the transfer of technology from other countries.
3. Assist member countries in formulating development programs.

C. Membership and Organizational Structure

53 ESCAP member countries and 9 countries dialogue partners (associate members). Member countries of ESCAP consists of several categories: the advanced industrial countries like Japan and Australia, countries newly industrialized namely the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, seven countries of Central Asia in transition economies, 13 countries LDC's, 19 developing countries archipelago small Pacific and other developing countries in the Asia Pacific region.
Structurally, the Commission is the supreme organ of ESCAP Ministerial meeting once a year and report to the ECOSOC. The Commission is an intergovernmental forum member state as an annual evaluation to assess the activities of ESCAP and its organs underneath and discuss issues of current social-economic as well as strengthen regional cooperation in the field of social economy.
At the Annual Session of the Commission on the 58th in Bangkok (16 - May 22, 2002), on "Restructuring the Conference Structure of the Commission" to reform and restructure the ESCAP, agreed recommendations ESCAP Secretariat so streamlined structure to consist of three thematic Committee: Committee on Poverty Reduction, Committee on Managing Globalization and the Committee on Emerging Social Issues, and two Special Bodies (least developed and landlocked Developing Countries and the Pacific Island Developing Countries). In addition, ESCAP has a subsidiary bodies to which Indonesia is a member, as follows:

• Coordinating Committee for Coastal and Offshore Geoscience Programmes (CCOP),
• Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology (APCTT),
• The Statistical Institute for Asia and the Pacific (SIAP)
• Regional Coordination Centre for Research and Development of Coarse Grains, Pulses, Roots and Tuber Crops in the Humid Tropics of Asia and the Pacific (CGPRT),
• Asia and Pacific Centre for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery (APCAEM).
Based on the Terms of Reference (TOR) of ESCAP, the three Thematic can be explained as follows:

1. Committee on Poverty Reduction
a. Poverty is a major challenge the development of developing countries in Asia Pacific, where more than two-thirds of poor people living in this region. Urgent needs that must be implemented effectively to poverty reduction is reflected in the UN Millennium Development goals, which launched in 2015 the number of poor people in the world would be reduced to separohnya. Poverty is a multidimensional and dynamic phenomenon with a variety of interrelated issues that require attention and complex economic, social and environmental areas. Facing these problems, poverty reduction committee will serve as a regional forum to assist member countries in achieving the goal, among others, such as:
1) Determination of strategy and policy development to reduce poverty rapidly and continuously and improve the quality of life of the poor;
2) Increasing national statistical infrastructure for collecting, analyzing and dissemination of statistics through the promotion of the use the same methodology for comparison between countries and improve the quality of statistics;
3) Development and exchange of experiences regarding the best course of action in reducing poverty in both urban and rural areas.
Committee goal is to enable members of ESCAP to design better policies on poverty reduction in order to achieve the millennium development goals.
b. Under the full supervision of the Commission, the Committee will implement the following things:
1) Reviewing the progress and challenges faced in two qualitative and quantitative objectives relating to the millennium development goals;
2) Analyze the trends and global and regional development, with special emphasis, to the provision of policy advice on economic improvement of poor people and the prevention of social inequalities;
3) Review and analyze statistical advances in the ESCAP region, improving the national statistical infrastructure and improve the quality of statistics, with attention to the following areas:
a) Improvement and harmonization of statistical methodology for measuring poverty and improving economic and social statistics;
b) statistical priority areas identified by the members, including among others: the national tally, the informal sector, gender statistics, environment statistics and statistics on information and communication technology and knowledge of the fundamentals of the economy.
4) Encourage the exchange of experiences and poverty reduction measures, such as human and institutional capacity development, with particular attention to:
a) The incorporation of poverty reduction, sustainable development and environmental protection;
b) Merger of poverty reduction and population dynamics and population movements.
c) Increased economic and social position through the approach in terms of needs, development and rights;
d) Increased participation of the poor in decision-making through community organizations;
e) Strengthening the construction of sustainable and affordable information and communication technologies and information that is focused on the needs of the poor.
5) Review and evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of work programs of relevant ESCAP and make recommendations to the Commission about programs that will come and in this process is linked with cross-sectoral issues such as special attention to the Pacific island countries, countries isolated and underdeveloped countries and countries with economies in transition, also on the environment, human resource development and women in development with all its capabilities.
6) Improve relations with government organizations, non-governmental, regional and bilateral cooperation also with the private sector to support poverty reduction policies and strategies to maximize synergies with the efforts and activities that overlap.
7) Increase the close cooperation with the Entities associated with the UN in order to minimize activities that overlap and duplication. Besides, it also enhances relationships with financial institutions, development agencies outside the UN, private organizations, non-governmental organizations and donor countries-neggara inside and outside the ESCAP region. Furthermore, also to maximize use of available resources and improve the effectiveness and the work of the Commission in facing the challenges of development in the ESCAP region.
8) Work closely and coordinate with other agencies in addition to the Commission.
9) Implement activities that can be implemented by the Commission from time to time in matters relating to poverty reduction.

The Committee will meet biennially and report to the Commission regarding the development of poverty reduction efforts.
The Committee will be assisted in his task by the Sub-sub-committees as follows:
a) Sub-committee on poverty reduction practices (Subcommittee on Poverty Reduction Practices)
b) Statistics Subcommittee (Subcommittee on Statistics)
If the Committee will think about aspects of the overall policy on poverty reduction, then the sub-committee will focus on specific sectoral aspects as the mandate given by the committee.
Sub-committees will meet during the year between the second committee hearing, more often in the turn of the year. The Committee will provide overall guidance to the sub-committee on the issues to be discussed and a priority of their tasks.

2. Committee on Managing Globalization (CMB)
a. The process of globalization continues to grow, give effect to the economic and social development ESCAP region.
Tan hand is how to control the globalization effectively with the formulation and implementation of effective policies to achieve new opportunities while minimizing unexpected costs. In this context, the CMB will deal with issues that are focused on sub-program areas as follows:
1) Investment and International Trade
2) Transport Infrastructure and Facilitation and Tourism
3) Environment and Sustainable Development and
4) Information Technology, Communications and Space.
b. Under the full supervision of the Commission, the Committee will:
1) Assess the economic issues that arise and the implications for the region and recommend policy guidelines, for use by the Government.
2) Assess the development in order to improve understanding of the WTO agreements, regional trade agreements and other multilateral trade negotiations. The Committee provides appropriate recommendations to strengthen the ability of countries that will enter the WTO and for developing countries and transition economies to participate actively in international trade negotiations.
3) Improve the competitiveness of international trade with the rationalization and automation of document handling, drive simplification and harmonization of trade rules and improve standards and certification and management capabilities.
4) Promote the exchange of experiences in terms of promotion and facilitation of investment and improve the ability of member states in order to formulate and implement policies and strategies in support of entrepreneurial development, with special focus on SMEs.
5) Encourage development of sustainable pariwista with increased ability of human and institutional resources and the promotion of regional cooperation, especially networking of training institutions.
6) As a catalyst for activity formulation and implementation of transport initiatives of national, regional, and inter-regional with a special focus on the construction of roads Asia, Cross Fire-Asian railway and construction of intermodal transport network in order meningkatkann both market access and domestic or global.
7) Increase the broad approach to eliminating institutional barriers in order to facilitate the movement of people, goods and services and strengthen the development of transportation services / logistics multimodal, including transit facilities, to enable active participation in the globalization process.
8) Review of transport policy documentation and assist members and associate member countries in addressing issues that focus on private partnerships / government and encourage participatory approaches to the integration of economic and social development and the environment associated with transportation planning and policy development.
9) Assess the environmental conditions in the ESCAP region and give important attention to environmental issues that stand out in hopes of attention to the integration of development policies, strategic plans and programs on macroeconomic and sectoral levels, and facilitate policy dialogue, training and exchange of experience.
10) Enhance capacity building of human resources and institutions to respond effectively to a way of pooling plans on global, regional, national and local environment to participate in development, participation in the implementation of multilateral environmental agreements. In this case, promote the formulation and dissemination of regional perspectives and model legislation and standards such as economic instruments in the light of economic conditions, social and environment, and support cooperation at sub regional and regional environment.
11) Helps increase in the formulation and implementation of strategies and action plans for sustainable use of natural resources, especially water resources, with special focus on water quality issues and obtain safe drinking water for the poor.
12) Strengthening of national capabilities in prevention, reduce and manage water-related damage, enhance and strengthen cooperation with the Secretariat of the Convention in combating soil degradation, is certified and the negative effects of climate change and coordinate with the UN Food and Agriculture organization of the problem of deforestation through increased regional cooperation.
13) Increasing the capacity of sustainable energy development through policy advice, human resource development and exchange of information so as to support national efforts in strategic planning and management and increased use of new energy and increased energy efficiency through the integration of economic, social and environmental . Also support subregional cooperation in energy sector development, energy trade as well as policy reforms.
14) Improve the ability to create an enabling environment for development, transfer and application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), particularly through regional cooperation and networks of government organizations, non governmental and governmental organizations that benefit the sector and the most important for the economies of developing countries and countries with economies in transition.
15) Enhance regional cooperation and effective integration of ICT-based satellite technology with other information about the information economy and social development planning and sustainable management, improved quality of life, particularly integrated remote sensing and satellite communications for rural areas and remote areas, the map poverty and distance education.
16) Increasing confidence in yourself to be collectively and South-South Cooperation as ECDC / TCDC and regional resilience.
17) Assess the implementation and effectiveness of programs of work of ESCAP and make recommendations to the commission about the work programs for the future, this process, ensuring cross-sectoral issues such as special attention to developing countries are poor, remote Pacific islands and countries with economies in transition.
18) Improve the relationship with relevant subregional organizations to enhance cooperation between sub-regional and intra.
19) Accelerate follow-up to decisions and recommendations of global conferences related to the working committees at the national, regional and sub regional levels; evaluate progress and prepare guidelines for the formulation and implementation of a regional action program.
20) Improve the relationship with development agencies and financial institutions, private sector organizations, non governmental organizations, supporting countries and donor countries within and outside the region and representatives of relevant UN, with the intention of minimizing the overlap and duplication and strengthening cooperation with organizations and agencies at the sub regional, regional and global levels to maximize the effectiveness and impact of the activities of the Commission.
21) Work closely and coordinate with other subsidiary bodies of the Commission.
22) Carry out other activities which the Commission may set from time to time in matters relating to the regulation of globalization.
The Committee will meet biennially and submit a report to the Commission in connection with globalization settings.
Committee work will be assisted by four sub-Committee the following:
a. Sub-Committee on International Trade and Investment
b. Sub-Committee on Transport Infrastructure, Facilitation and Tourism
c. Sub-Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development
d. Sub Committee on Information Technology, Communications and Space.
If the Committee considers aspects of the overall policy in the regulation of globalization, then the sub-committee meeting would be held within the period between the Committee hearing, more usually in the turn of the year. The Committee will provide overall guidance to the subcommittee on the issues that should be prioritized in their work, which will guide the subcommittee in setting their agendas. Reports from sub committees will be reported to the committee at the next sessions as a basis for consideration at the level of inter-sectoral discussion / thematik.

3. Committee on Emerging Social Issues (CESI)
a. Asia-Pacific region faces new challenges and existing trends of development on a regional and global impact in on individuals, families and communities. Many countries in the region face barriers in terms of employment equation, which caused problems of gender, old age, incapacity, disability, income or other factors. There are other threats to "human security" among others, regarding the increased infection of HIV / AIDS, human smuggling and other crimes. In addition, other regional challenges are increasing with the rapid population growth and international migration, which impact on the overall socio-economic development.
CESI is responsible to the Commission to assist member countries in achieving the objectives of planning and implementation of effective policies and strategies to create equal opportunities for all social groups in order to participate actively, and overall improvements to the quality of life.
b. Under the overall supervision of the Commission, the Committee will:
1) Examine the trend of development to anticipate and identify emerging social development challenges and issues that impact on the Asia Pacific region, focusing on groups vulnerable to social change, termauk women, youth, people who can not afford, the population old age, and people living with HIV / AIDS.
2) Promote the development of social development policy and its main factors is the social dimension in national development programs.
3) Promote the achievement of the objectives of education for all layers, particularly through educational equity in all programs that are relevant, particularly for vulnerable groups to social change.
4) Provide appropriate recommendations in national capacity development strategies at all levels to improve the development and basic social services, such as education, health and food; eliminate the barriers to participate and threats to "human security"; focused on vulnerable groups social change, in addressing social problems.
5) Provide recommendations for strategic multisectoral HIV / AIDS prevention, education about prevention and awareness programs keasadaran community.
6) Create guidelines to the Secretariat in the formulation of medium-term plans and programs to prevent or alleviate the social problems that are critical, and increasing development is true for all social groups that focused on key areas under item 1 above, through the activity normative and operational, including:
a) Implementation of projects of technical assistance, provision of advice, training, research, and encourage the development of information and exchange of information.
b) Identify and disseminate appropriate measures.
c) Providing analysis and multi-sectoral social dialogue integrated.
7) Assess the implementation and effectiveness of work programs relevant ESCAP and social issues that arise and recommend steps to strengthen the impact of the program taking into account the ability of ESCAP.
8) Improving regional cooperation among ESCAP members to strengthen political commitment and creating activities at all levels to prevent and reduce adverse social impacts of development trends. In this regard, attention should be given to social issues that arise in order to get the best benefit from cooperation and regional collaboration.
9) Accelerate follow-up at the national, subregional and regional levels of decisions and recommendations of global conferences relevant; monitor and evaluate progress and make the guidelines in formulating and implementing regional work programs, taking into account the recommendations of the Commission Social Development, Commission on the Status of Women's Organizations and the UN Intergovernmental other subsidiaries.
10) Enhance closer cooperation and collaboration with UN agencies and related special representatives, while also improving relations with other intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental and business sectors, and relationships with financial institutions, state supporting countries and donor countries within and outside the ESCAP region so as to maximize resources and impact of the labor commission relating to the challenges of social development are critical in the ESCAP region.
11) Work closely and coordinate with other subsidiary bodies of the commission.
12) Carry out other activities which the Commission may mengintruksikannya, which deal with social issues thoroughly.
The Committee will meet biennially and present a report to the commission as a discussion of social issues that arise.
The Committee will be assisted in its work by the following two sub-committees:
a. Sub Committee on Vulnerable Groups Social Change
b. Sub-Committee on Health and Development
If the Committee will consider aspects of the overall policy aimed at social issues as a whole, then the sub-committee will focus on aspects of specific sectoral nature of the mandate given by the Committee.
Sub-Committee will meet in the intervening time between the committee hearing, more often in the turn of the year.
The Committee will provide overall guidance to the subcommittee on the issues that should be prioritized in their work, which will guide the subcommittee in setting their agendas. Reports from sub committees will be reported to the committee at the next sessions as a basis for consideration at the level of inter-sectoral discussion / thematik.

4. Special Body on Least Developed and landlocked Developing Countries (SBLDLDC)
In addition to these three thematik, there is the Special Agency for Development of State-Developed Countries (Special Body on Least Developed and Developing Countries landlocked) which can be explained as follows:
a. Specific issues and urgent economic and social development in poor countries and underdeveloped countries have been recognized by the international community, and therefore also listed in the Brussels Declaration and Programme of Action for the underdeveloped countries of the Third United Nations Conference on the state- underdeveloped countries, the International Development strategy and implementation of the UN Millennium Development Goals.
These issues require special attention in the Asia Pacific region in order to bring the underdeveloped countries and the countries of the remote can be inserted in the regional integration process with the dynamics of the economic problems the region. SBLDLDC will focus on specific issues and problems the group with the spirit of regional cooperation.
b. Under the overall supervision of the Commission, the Special Body shall:
1) Assess the economic and social progress in developing countries and isolated and conduct field assessments of economic, social and environmental barriers to the development of underdeveloped countries and isolated.
2) Serves as a mover of ideas and a catalyst to identify and offer policy options that a new national, subregional and regional levels in which these countries can maximize the benefits of globalization, with emphasis on the application of measures to be increased mobilization of domestic resources and foreign, trade and development in the private sector, public sector establishment and supervision of advisers on the relevant issues, as well as requests to the government.
3) Encouraging increased national capacity in underdeveloped countries and isolated, including the ability related to the formulation of development strategies at national and sectoral level.
4) Assist the development and strengthening cooperation among countries to exchange experiences and technical cooperation among countries underdeveloped and isolated and with other developing countries in the region.
5) Conducting a broad approach that includes a lot of things to eliminate physical barriers and institutional framework for facilitating the movement of people, goods and services and strengthening the construction of transportation services / logistics multimodal, and also include transit facilities, to be able to participate actively in the process of globalization .
6) Without duplicating other existing work, conduct special studies on transit trade and transport problems in isolated countries in Asia, recommend suitable measures for solving problems in accordance with international treaties, particularly article 125 of the UN Convention on the Law Marine and encourage Asian countries are isolated and the countries of their transit neighbors to cooperate, among others, to reduce transport costs in the final cost of goods delivered.
7) Improve relations with representative institutions and financial institutions, private sector organizations, nongovernmental organizations and donor countries within and outside the region, for the benefit of underdeveloped countries and isolated.
8) Review the implementation and effectiveness of the programs of work of ESCAP and make recommendations to the Commission about programs that will come and work in this process, ensuring that cross-sectoral issues such as environment, human resources development and women in development be handled carefully.
9) Accelerate follow-up to decisions that are relevant and globally conference recommends to the underdeveloped countries and isolated at the regional, subregional and regional levels, particularly the Brussels Declaration and Programmes of Action for the underdeveloped countries at the UN Conference on the III in underdeveloped countries.
10) Enhance closer cooperation and joint activities with UN agencies concerned and special representatives, as well as improving relationships with financial institutions, UN agencies, private sector organizations, nongovernmental organizations, donor countries and countries supporting countries within and outside the ESCAP region so as to maximize the use of the resources available and enhance the effectiveness of committee work in addressing development challenges underdeveloped countries and isolated.
11) Work closely and coordinate with agencies of other subsidiaries in the Commission.
12) Performing other functions which the Commission can ask from time to time in a problem for underdeveloped countries and isolated.
Specialized agency of the biennial meeting for 2 days time along with the hearing of the Commission.

5. Special Body On Pacific Island Developing Countries (SBPIDC)
Special Agency for Development Pacific Island States can be explained as follows:
a. Specific problems and situations / special circumstances concerning the economic and social development of developing countries in the Pacific islands are related to their remoteness, small size of its territory and susceptible to environmental hazards, recognized by the international community, especially in the context of an action program for Sustainable Development small island developing countries and the implementation of the UN Millennium development goals. This special situation of developing countries in the Pacific islands require priority attention so that these countries can be incorporated into the regional integration process with the dynamics of economic and social territory. SBPIDC will provide / give a forum to address specific issues and problems of this group of countries in the spirit of regional cooperation.
b. Under the overall supervision of the Commission, SBPIDC will:
1) Assess the economic and social progress of developing countries in the Pacific islands, including obstacles to their development.
2) Serves as a mover of ideas and as a catalyst to introduce options for the new policy at the national, subregional and regional levels in which these countries can maximize the benefits of globalization.
3) Helps to increase capacity building of developing countries in the Pacific Islands.
4) Assist the development and strengthening of intra-subregional cooperation and exchange of experiences and technical cooperation among developing countries, Pacific island with other countries in the region.
5) Improve the relationship, particularly through the ESCAP Pacific Islands Operations Centre, with representatives of development and financial institutions, private sector organizations, nongovernmental organizations, donors and supporting countries within and outside its territory, in this initiative and activity for the benefit of developing countries other Pacific islands.
6) Assess the implementation and effectiveness of work programs of relevant ESCAP and make recommendations to the commission about the work programs that will come and in this process, ensuring that cross-sectoral issues such as environment, human resource development and attention to gender issues are handled carefully .
7) Accelerate and recommend follow-up of global conferences relevant to developing countries, small island at the national, regional and sub-regional, especially the Programme of Activities for the sustainable development of developing countries, small island and the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals.
8) Increase in closer cooperation and joint activities with UN agencies concerned and representatives of other special-Representative.
9) Work closely and coordinate with other subsidiary bodies on the commission.
10) Performing other functions which the Commission may direct from time to time in matters relating to developing countries other Pacific islands.
Special Body will meet once every two years for 2 days, returning repeatedly to the hearing of the Commission, in its turn of the year by the Special Body developing countries are Retarded and Isolated.

6. Advisory Committee of Permanent Representatives and Other Representatives (ACPROR)
Advisory Committee of Permanent Representatives and Other Representatives appointed by the Commission Members will have the following functions:
1. Maintaining close cooperation and consultation among members and the secretariat of the Commission.
2. As advisors and representatives of the Executive Secretary in presenting proposals for a medium-term plan, budget and program priorities, consistent with the rules.
3. To receive information remains on administrative and financial functions from ESCAP, to assist and advise the Executive Secretary in monitoring and evaluating the implementation of ESCAP work program.
4. Reviewing the draft calendar before the meeting delivered the sessions of the Commission.
5. Exchange views with the Executive Secretary on the provisional agenda for each session of the Commission.
6. To advise the Executive Secretary on the identification of social issues and emerging economic and other issues that are relevant for inclusion into the agenda while the commission hearings.
7. To assist the Secretariat in the provisional agenda for each commission meeting before finalization.
8. To monitor the function of the theme approach and implementation of activities under it, in order to provide an assessment approach to themes and to propose potential modifications to the Commission in a timely or theme changes.
9. Carry out several other tasks that will be entrusted by the Commission.
In 1977 the UN General Assembly has extended the mandate of ESCAP and UN regional commissions as other centers of economic and social development in Asia and the Pacific within the UN framework. Furthermore, to anticipate the rapid changes as the impact of globalization and liberalization as well as efforts to improve efficiency and effectiveness of work of ESCAP Secretariat, the 48th Annual Session of ESCAP Commission has adopted resolution 48 / 2 concerning the restructuring of the ESCAP Commission thematik approach through the review

D. Indonesia Indonesia's participation in ESCAP Activities

Indonesia berpartisispasi active in various social and economic cooperation forum ESCAP. Indonesia is always open to discuss prospects, priorities and policy options oriented to promote and develop regional economic cooperation in order to ESCAP, particularly cooperation in the field of poverty eradication, capacity building of Human Resources (HR), the utilization of science and technology and infrastructure development through series of integrated programs in the field of technical cooperation among developing countries.
In the implementation of two regional meetings in Indonesia on Financing for Development and Energy for Sustainable Development in the short term are expected to provide regional input to the global level, while for the long term can be used as a regional strategic action programs in the development of regional and international cooperation in the field of finance and energy. In addition, through the organization of the meeting is expected image of Indonesia in international forums is recovering is getting better and important role of Indonesia in the Asia Pacific region increasingly taken into account.
Common strategy on Indonesia's participation in the trial and ESCAP activities prioritized in an effort to enhance regional economic cooperation that takes into account the nature komplementaristik with various forms of regional or sub regional cooperation and strengthen the existing cooperation.
In this regard, Indonesia is always open to discuss prospects, priorities and policy options oriented to promote and develop regional economic cooperation in order to ESCAP, particularly cooperation in the field of poverty eradication, capacity building of human resources, the utilization of science and technology and infrastructure development through series of integrated programs in the field of technical cooperation among developing countries.
The Indonesian government tried to address the problem of poverty in Indonesia by establishing a Coordinating Committee for Poverty Reduction is co-chaired by the Minister, and Minister for Economy, assisted by other relevant government agencies for the implementation of national programs.
In addition, there is a picture of the relevance condition of women and poverty rates (feminization of poverty) in Indonesia, underline the importance of the role of ICT for efforts to address poverty and in particular to support poverty alleviation efforts based on the empowerment of the agricultural sector.
Sustainable social development can be achieved only if all groups in society, including communities of poor and disadvantaged groups participate in the process, stressed that the importance of "social equity" for poverty reduction
Indonesia as one of the members of ESCAP are very concerned with the implementation of the restructuring of the ESCAP Commission. With consideration of the contribution of Indonesia's commitment to UN agencies including ESCAP and the Regional Centres under the shade is quite high as well as sharpening the focus of attention ESCAP Commission on urgent problems facing developing countries and to avoid overlap of activities with other international and regional organizations. In various ESCAP meeting, Indonesia always stressed that ESCAP Commission can play a wider and larger to sharpen the focus of attention to the urgent needs of developing countries.
In this regard, it is deemed necessary to prepare so that Indonesia can take advantage of the momentum is to the advantage and benefits for the greater interest of national development progress, particularly for Indonesia's interest commensurate with the amount of contributions made to the ESCAP particularly on ESCAP Regional Centres to which Indonesia is one of its members.
In the future in order to ESCAP Commission can play a greater role, it is necessary to focus more attention on issues and activities to address urgent needs of developing countries in the Asia and Pacific region such as human resource capacity building, development of environmentally sound as well as increased cooperation in the field science and technology.
Until now, Indonesia became a member of the ESCAP Regional Center, among others, the Asian and Pacific Development Centre (APDC) in Kuala Lumpur, The Statistical Institute for Asia and the Pacific (SIAP) in Tokyo, the Committee for Coordinating of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP) and the Regional Network on Agricultural Machinery (RNAM) in Bangkok, Asia Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology (APCTT) in New Delhi and the Regional Coordination Center for Research and Development of Coarse Grains, Pulses, Roots and Tuber Crops in the Humid Tropics of Asia and the Pacific (DGPRT) in Bogor, Indonesia.
Indonesia's active participation in various activities of regional organizations, especially in economic and social cooperation forum ESCAP is one manifestation of evidence from independent and active foreign policy which is dedicated to national interests and also to contribute ideas and experiences in order to seek joint solutions to regional problems and internationally, which in turn may further strengthen the image of Indonesia in various international forums. The role is increasingly being recognized by the international community in order to foster and deepen friendship, enhance solidarity, unity and cooperation among nations attitudes based on the principle of mutual benefit in order to participate in realizing the new world order, including a new world economic order based on lasting peace and social justice.
It is also important to note that the UN Secretary-General entrusted the office of Executive Secretary of ESCAP to his two sons Indonesia, namely JB Paul and Prof. Maramis the period 1973-1981. Dr. Adrianus Mooy the period 1995-1999.
During the Executive Secretary of ESCAP held by JB Paul Maramis there are two important things to note are:
a. Restructuring of ESCAP in order to anticipate the rapid changes as the impact of globalization and efforts to improve efficiency and effectiveness of work of ESCAP activities such changes name to ESCAP ECAFE. This proposal marks the desire to escape from the domination of the political outlook based in Europe who regard the Pacific as the Far East, as well as adding the word 'social' to reflect not only its parent agency, but also identifies the importance of harmonious social development with economic development region.
b. Government of Indonesia to ESCAP has established a Trust Fund of U.S. $ 25,000 for funding of the Inter-Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries ESCAP member countries. Under the agreement referred to, the use of the Trust Fund is the permission of the Government of Indonesia and the project can be implemented in Indonesia or abroad using experts from Indonesia.
In the period 1995-1999 in the tenure of the Executive Secretary of ESCAP chaired by Prof.. Dr. Adrianus Mooy, there are two important things to note are:
a. ESCAP restructuring process is a process that continues within the framework of overall UN reform. In the Annual Session of ESCAP in 1997 agreed that essentially maintains the Commission remains in session every year and consists of two segments of the High Level Officials and Ministerial and Legislative Committee retain the number 5. The Committee's mandate has been refined in order to be more focused and attract a wider participation of related agencies at the national level.
b. Indonesia has also announced a contribution of the Government of Indonesia to ESCAP program an additional budget of U.S. $ 150,000 which will be discussed further modalitasnya the ESCAP Secretariat.
Regarding the efforts for reform of ESCAP, Executive Secretary, looking at the interplay and harmony between the comprehensive efforts to revitalize ESCAP plan of the Secretary General of the United Nations for the strengthening and revitalization of the UN and the priorities contained in the Millennium Declaration.
At the 59th Annual Session in 2003, there were three (3) discussion:
1. HIV / AIDS in Asia-Pacific: The devastating socio-economic impact.
2. Coping with risks and uncertainties through regional cooperation
3. Integrating and balancing economic, social and environmental concerns to meet the needs of the region.

ESCAP Commission discussed the issue:
a. Policy issues in the ESCAP region:
• The impact of economic and social development today;
• Integration of economic and social issues, particularly HIV / AIDS in meeting the needs of regional countries.
b. Issues Management:
• Implementation of Commission resolution 58 / 1 on restructuring the ESCAP Commission
• Activities ACPR (Advisory Committee of Permanent Representatives and Other Representatives Designated by Members of the Commission)
• The evaluation of agency operations and ESCAP regional center (APCTT, SIAP, CGPRT Centre).
Also in the Assembly was discussed about the development issues raised at the regional level are:
• Reduction of poverty
• The management of globalization (sectors: transport, communications, tourism, infrastructure, environment, natural resources)
• Social issues are raised (sectors: social development, population, problems of elderly and disabled).
In the Ministerial Roundtable or exchange views in an interactive forum between the Minister or Head of Delegation, where the issue of HIV / AIDS is associated with achievement of the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals).
In the ESCAP Committee on Emerging Social Issues, where the post-restructuring of ESCAP, to determine policy direction and activities of the new Committee in the future, the discussion is about:
a. Socially vulnerable groups:
• Population and development
• Empowerment of people with disabilities
• Gender and development
b. Health and development:
• Investing in the health sector for development
• SARS: lessons for public health
c. Program planning and evaluation:
• Proposed medium-term program
• Evaluation of projects of social fields.
Report of the Session as a follow-up for further development of the ESCAP are as follows:
Emerging Issues on the agenda and Development at the level involving the elimination of poverty, managing globalization and the discussion as follows:
1. In sub-topics "Poverty Reduction", Delri convey the urgency of mainstreaming aspects in aligning government policy with the participation of community and business groups so that the implementation of poverty eradication programs become more effective and efficient.
RI delegation also informed that the Government of Indonesia is working on the First National Report on the achievement of the Millennium Developments Goals (MDGs) and the establishment of the work unit to prepare poverty reduction strategic paper on the MDGs reference.
In connection with this Delri encourage national and international stakeholders to harness the initiative of ESCAP in the development of statistical capacity to measure the achievement of the MDGs.
2. In sub-discussion "Managing Globalization" Delri convey the key points and suggestions to the Secretariat of ESCAP to accommodate the activities of strengthening the ability of SMEs into the work program of ESCAP. Another proposal is to implement a practical approach in promoting the private sector in infrastructure development and initiated a partnership program for financing the infrastructure.
Posted on 19.24.00 / 0 comments / Read More

Evaluation of Learning & Curriculum Development

 Evaluation of Learning Experience in planning and Curriculum Development

A. Background Issues

 Teaching is the creation of an enabling environment for the learning process. Environmental system consists of components that influence each other, ie intruksional goals that you want to accomplish. The material in teaching teachers and students who must play a role as well in a particular social relationships. Types of activities will be undertaken and the teaching and learning facilities and infrastructure available. Each neighborhood or any event of teaching and learning have "profile" is unique, resulting in the achievement of different learning objectives.
Penyampainya learning objectives in trying explicitly to the specific instructional actions in call instrutional effect, which usually took the form of knowledge dang ketrampilan.sedangkan goals is the result of accompaniment, the achievement because students "feed" a system of a particular learning environment. Such as the ability to think critically and creatively, or being open to receive people's opinions lain.di called nurturant effect. To achieve this goal teachers usually choose one or more of teaching and learning strategies.
Teaching and learning strategy is a general pattern of student teachers' actions in the realization of learning activities; teaching. Understanding the strategy in this case shows the abstract characteristics of student teachers in a series of actions in the event of teaching and learning. Certain actual instructional procedure is called.
Metude teaching is a tool that can be part of the tool and the way in implementing a strategy of teaching and learning are the means or tools u ntuk achieve learning objectives. So the method teaching is a tool for mncapai an objective process belaja In the teaching-learning process there are three components that are interrelated and can not be separated from one another. The third component is the goal of teaching, teaching-learning process, and evaluation. Teaching objectives to be achieved will determine what material will be taught, what methods or means are used, and what media is appropriate. Similarly with the evaluation. how the evaluation procedures that will be used to measure the outcomes of teaching must always be associated with a material that has been presented, teaching methods, and goals set.

A. Background of the problem

Tyler (1973:105) suggests several purposes, namely to identify the strengths and weaknesses of planning, checking the validity of the basic hypothesis to the teaching program that has been organized and developed, and to examine the tools - a research tool, teachers and other conditions that refer to the teaching program, as well as It allows the evaluation results to note whether the curriculum is effective and or in need of development. The purpose of evaluation, Tyler (1973:106) argues as follows.
The evaluation process is essentially a process for improvement purposes - educational purposes are realized through the program curriculum and instruction. However, the purpose of education is basically a change in human beings, while the main goal to generate desire change - certain changes in behavior patterns of students, thus the evaluation is a process to determine the extent of changes in behavior are made.
The term refers to the understanding of the curriculum can be very broad or very narrow otherwise. In broad terms the curriculum refers to the teaching program at a certain level of education. Conversely, in the narrow sense can refer to the program curriculum of teaching a subject. Both the broad and narrow sense, the curriculum must have a compliance that are external (society demands) and internal (antarkomponen curriculum). These components is the goal, content or material, the process of delivery, and evaluation.
From time to time demands, needs and conditions of the community continues to grow. Developments that occurred in various areas of life both material and immaterial. Which is material such as lifestyle, clothes, and food, while that is immaterial as the shift of values, norms, and attitudes. All changes will certainly affect the world of education as a whole. Curriculum as one of the subsystems of education will inevitably have to change in order to remain in accordance with the developments taking place. The curriculum must be able to "cage" for a value system that will be maintained and passed on to younger generations. The curriculum must provide learning experiences that correspond with the development of the students. In this context, the components of the curriculum established causal relationship with the various developments taking place in society.
Evaluation as a tool to measure the level of achievement of the learning experience of students both the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor can provide input for curriculum development. Learning experiences which are appropriate, where the learning experience needs to be developed, and learning experiences which must be changed, evaluate the results of which provide the information. Thus, the results of evaluations, both the evaluation of learning results and overall evaluation of teaching is the feedback for further improvements in.
According to Tyler (1973:122) that the usefulness of the evaluation is to see the strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum and provide possible hypotheses about the causes of strengths and weaknesses. The implication of all this is that the process of curriculum planning is an ongoing process and develop materials and procedures, they tried, then the results are assessed, shortcomings are identified, suggestions for improvement are shown, no re-planning, redevelopment, and then re-assessment, and this is a continuous cycle, thus the program's curriculum and learning improved continuously from year to year.
Curriculum development is a process of curriculum planning in order to produce a broad plan and specific curriculum. In it covers the planning, implementation, and evaluation. Curriculum planning is the first step in building a curriculum when the curriculum workers to make decisions and take action to produce a plan that will be used by teachers and learners. Implementation of curriculum or curriculum implementation also called trying to transfer the planning curriculum into operational action.

B. Pinsip principles in use in curriculum development activities

The principles to be used in curriculum development activities is basically the rules or laws that would animate a curriculum. In curriculum development, can use the principles that have evolved in everyday life or creates its own new principles. Therefore, the implementation of the curriculum in an institution is very possible the use of principles different from the curriculum used in other educational institutions so that it will be found a lot of the principles used in a curriculum development.
 In this case, Sukmadinata (2007) explores the principles of curriculum development is divided into two groups: (1) principles - General principles: relevance, flexibility, continuity, practicality, and effectiveness, (2) specific principles: the principle of respect with the aim of education, principles of education with regard to content selection, the principle regarding the selection of teaching-learning process, the principle regarding the selection of media and learning tools, and principles with regard to the selection of assessment activities. Meanwhile, Asep Herry Hernawan et al. (In Sudrajat, 2007) put forward five principles for curriculum development, namely:
The principle of relevance means internally that the curriculum has relevance among the components of the curriculum (goals, materials, strategies, organization and evaluation). In contrast, externally that the components have relevance to the demands of science and technology (epistomologis relevance), demand and potential learners (relevance psychological) as well as the demands and needs of the community development (relevance sosilogis)
The principle of flexibility in curriculum development has arranged for the resulting properties of flexible, resilient, and flexible in its implementation, allowing for adaptations based on the circumstances of place and time that is always evolving, and the ability and background bekang learners.
The principle of continuity which is a continuity in the curriculum, either vertically or horizontally. Learning experiences provided the curriculum should pay attention to sustainability, both inside the classroom level, inter-education level, and between levels of education by the type of work.
The principle of efficiency that is arranged for curriculum development can utilize the time, cost, and other sources that there is an optimal, carefully and precisely so that the results memadai.Prinsip see to it that the effectiveness of the curriculum development activities to achieve goals without a superfluous activity, both in quality and kuantititatif.

C. Learning experience in education curriculum
According to Bruner, dalamproses learning can distinguish three phases or episodes, which is information, and evaluasi.informasi transformation in each of the teaching we get some information there that add to the knowledge we already have, there is a refining and memperdalamnya.ada also conflicting information with what we already know sebelumnya.misalnya that no energy is lost, transformasi.informasi it should be analyzed in change or transformation into a more abstract or conceptual to be in use for more things that help teachers luas.dalam this very in need.
Caswel and Campbell (in Sukmadinata, 2007: 4) says that "the curriculum ... to be composed of all the experiences children have under the guidance of teachers (curriculum is made up of all experiences that have been owned by the students under the guidance of teachers). " Can be explained based on the opinion that: 1) experiential learning experience refers to the interaction of learners with external conditions, not the lesson content, 2) experiential learning refers to learning through active student behavior, 3) learn to be owned by a student after he followed the teaching-learning activities particular, 4) learning experience that is the result obtained by the students, 5) the efforts made by teachers in their efforts to guide students to have a specific learning experience.


A. The position of evaluation in curriculum and instruction

According to modern understanding, the curriculum covers all aspects of life and field of human life in this modern society that can be input into the school's responsibility that can be used for personal mengembangankan students and contribute to improving people's lives.
From the definition above explained that the curriculum is not only what is listed in the "manual labor" or "lines of the teaching program." But rather encompasses all activities will be undertaken within the framework of school curricula are directed to achieve the goals of education pendidikan.tujuan should be in line with the demands of development that is being carried on by the government and people of Indonesia.

B. Curriculum objectives in curriculum development

Tujuanya is everything you want in capai.segala something concrete objects that can be either in the form of goods or the place also include things that are abstract, such ideals in the form of status, rank, position or nature luhur.denagan purpose other words can the form of simple things can also be the things that are complex.
John D.Mc.Neil (1977) present four different kinds of conceptions of curriculum as follows:
a. Conception of humanistic curriculum, prioritizing the development of personal awareness tujuanya (personal Increased awarness) for achieving self-actualization.
b. Conception of social reconstruction curriculum, tujuanya for Preparing students to be able to face many changes masyarakatpada the future and can menyesuaikanya (fit into the esisting societi).
c. The concept of the technology curriculum, especially in developing hasilpendidikan tujuanya that can be copied (the development of intruction produts That can replicated).
d. The concept of academic curriculum subyak tujuanya mainly to train the thought.

C. Objective evaluation of education in curriculum development

Affective realm is more difficult to be measured or observed compared with the cognitive and psychomotor. In fact, sometimes not rated because it did not seem possible in various situations at school. Attitudes, values, and feelings can be hidden on purpose. Teachers try to evaluate the results of affective realm by encouraging students to express their feelings, attitudes, and their value to the topic of class discussion. In this context, teachers can observe students and probably will find clear directions for the assessment of affective realm. To evaluate what has been achieved by students in this area can use the following taxonomy of Krathwohl.
 Receiving (Reception)
Students express in class consciousness of the existence of differences between groups of students at the school.
 Responding (Responses)
Students volunteered to serve on the human inter-group relations in schools
 valuing (Assessment)
Students expressed the desire to create a positive school climate
 Organization (Organizing)
Students can control his temperament when driving.

D. Approach to teaching and learning in the curriculum development
The teacher looked at his protege as a person who is different from other anakdidik will vary with the teacher who sees protege sa creature sama.ketika teaching and learning activities that teachers should proceed with a sincere attitude and be able to do, and want to understand their students with all the constraints konsekuansinya.semua occurring and can be a barrier nets good teaching and learning processes that can stem from the behavior of students as well as sourced from outside the child's self-didik.dan no difference in all hal.maka is important meluruska erroneous view of the students in assessing children didik.demi kejelasanya follow the following descriptions:

a. Individualized approach
In the classroom there is a group of students, they sit in their seats they berkelomppok from two to five orang.di front of them there is a table to read and write or place the facility belajar.mereka learn with different styles, we also vary beda.perilaku range.
b. Group approach
In teaching and learning activities sometimes there are also teachers who use lan approach, namely the group's approach kelompok.pendekatan a time in need and need to be used to foster and develop students' social attitudes.
c. Approaches vary
When teachers confronted the problems of troubled students, then teachers will be dealing with the problems of students varies. Every problem faced by students is not always the same, sometimes there are differences.
d. Educative approach
Students who made the mistake of making noise in class when the teacher was giving a pelajaran.misalnya not just give legal sanction to hitting badanya denagn so cidra or injury.


Evaluation of the learning experience and curriculum development have a very close relationship. As one important component of the curriculum, evaluating learning experiences will provide a lot of information very useful in further curriculum development. The results of the evaluation of learning experiences serve as a feedback or feedback for curriculum development activities. Instead, the curriculum will become a reference for the implementation of evaluation activities a learning experience.
Penyampainya learning objectives in trying explicitly to the specific instructional actions in call instrutional effect, which usually took the form of knowledge dang ketrampilan.sedangkan goals is the result of accompaniment, the achievement because students "feed" a system of learning environment tertentu.seperti ability to think critically and creatively or being open to receive people's opinions lain.di called nurturant effect.untuk achieve that teachers usually choose one or more of teaching and learning strategies.
Teaching and learning strategy is a general pattern of student teachers' actions in the realization of learning activities; teaching. Understanding the strategy in this case shows the characteristics of a series of abstract works in student teacher learning events particular mengajar.aktual called instructional procedures.
Curriculum evaluation is the final stage of curriculum development to determine how much learning outcomes, level of achievement of the programs that have been planned, and the results of the curriculum itself. Curriculum development involves not only those directly related to education alone, but it involves many people, like politicians, businessmen, parents, learners, and other elements of society who feel concerned with education.


Drs. M Ngalim Purwanto, MP.1984. Pinsip principles and techniques of teaching evaluation. jakarta
Drs. Syaiful bahri djamarah. 2006. learning strategies mengajar.jakarta
Prof. Drs. H. Dakir, 2004. planning and curriculum development. jakarta
Prof. Dr. S. Nasution, MA. Various approaches in teaching and learning. bina aksara.jakarta.
DRS. J. J. Hasibuan, Dip. FD. AND. drs, moedjiono. teaching and learning process. remajarosdakarya.bandung
Posted on 03.04.00 / 0 comments / Read More

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