Period Japanese leadership


Jepun called Nippon or Nihon in Japanese, which means "rising sun country" refers to the relative position of Japan in eastern Asia.

Period Japanese leadership :

• Tokugawa Period
Nations who have been involved in civil war for about 100 years (the Sengoku period / Warring States Period, 1467-1573) almost feel the unity in the Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582) and Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537-1598). But it became a reality when leyasu Tokugawa (1543-1616) managed to beat its competitors through a battle at Sekigahara.

• Meiji and Taisho Periods
The last period of the Tokugawa tinged with opinion split between those who wanted to open the country and those who want to keep their political entourage shut down after the United States Navy under the command of Commodore Matthew Perry anchored in the Gulf of Uraga in 1853 and demanded Japan to open his ports to foreign trade country. Differences of opinion was ultimately won by those who want to open up. This is manifested in a reform movement to restore the Emperor as the holders of political power (the Meiji Restoration). In this period of progress, both in economics, education, technology imports, and the armed forces advanced rapidly. Meiji Period is the period where Japan as the first Asian country to introduce a constitutional life, namely the establishment of the Meiji Constitution in 1889. This constitution modeled after the Prussian Constitution declared the country in which the supreme power in the hands of the Emperor and not in the hands of the people. State becomes very large in the Meiji period became more lax during the Emperor Taisho (1912-1926). Political life is growing very rapidly so that the period is referred to as Taisho Democracy as people gain experience in running a democracy.

• Showa Period
In this period divided into two periods, namely the Early Showa (1926-1945) and Later Showa (1945-1989). Early Showa period of decline is a democratic political life which was pioneered during the Taisho because the military was to exploit the weaknesses of the Meiji Constitution. Later Showa period is a period in which the Japanese political practices in the life of a relatively stable parliamentary democracy and the economy managed to rebuild itself in a relatively short time.

• Heisei Period
This period is characterized by a less stable government after the end of Liberal dominance Democrtic Party (LDP). Constitution of 1947 also did not escape even though the reform efforts at that time Japan was occupied by the United States. Until now Heisei period has not expired and has continued until today.
The Constitution (Constitution) of Japan which came into force in 1947, is based on three principles: popular sovereignty, respect for human rights, and rejection of war. The constitution imposed a system of parliamentary form of government, where the legislative power (Diet or Parliament), executive (cabinet), and judicial (courts) and works by separate check and balance one another.
 LEGISLATIVE BODIES (the Japanese Parliament, the Diet - Diet Kokkai or National)
"Japan's Parliament is the highest organization in the power (authority) state, and the sole organ of the legislators." Japanese Parliament or the National Diet consisting of two rooms (council), the lower house (House of Representatives) and assemblies High (House of Concillors). Members of both houses are elected and represent the entire population. The number of seats available since 2000 for the House of Commons is 480, while for the upper house is 247.
Members of the House of Commons elected by district electoral system, called System of District Medium (Chusen Kyoku-Sei), where a district represented by 3-5 people. While members of the Upper House elected by the two systems in different ways, ie 100 people were selected based on a proportional system balance and the rest are selected based on the district system of election districts established in 47 prefectures (like provinces). The constitution stated that a person is not allowed to become members of both houses, or in other words, a person may only be one council member only. Among both houses, the House of Commons of higher social status, especially in the problem of making the bill, making the state budget, ratification of foreign treaties, and the appointment of prime minister, which in this matter the House of Lords to act more as entities in order to ensure consideration in depth discussion.

Governance in Japan adopted parliamentary cabinet system. Executive power in the hands of a cabinet composed of the prime minister and the ministers are collectively responsible to the Diet. Position and duties of the cabinet in addition to performing administrative tasks are:
• Minding the law fairly, conduct affairs of State.
• Managing the affairs of State.
• Finalize agreements. Nevertheless, it must previously obtain, or depending on the circumstances, then the approval of the Diet.
• Taking care of civilian agencies, in accordance with the standards held by the law.
• Prepare budget and state revenues, and submit to the Diet.
• State enactment of Cabinet decisions.
• Decide on general amnesty, special amnesty, the reduction of penalties, delaying the implementation of law and restoration of rights.

JUDICIARY (Judicial)
Judicial power rests with the Supreme Court and lower courts, such as the high courts, district courts and summary courts. The Supreme Court consists of Chief Justice and 14 other judges, all appointed by the cabinet. Most cases handled by district courts are concerned. There are also summary court, which handles cases such as traffic violations, etc..

In accordance with the Constitution of 1947, the emperor is the symbol of the country and the unity of the people. Emperor sermonial just doing tasks listed in the Constitution, such as inaugurating the Prime Minister and Chairman of the Supreme Court, each designated by the Diet and the Cabinet, as well as on behalf of the people doing tasks such as announcing the law.

Prime Minister heads the cabinet. The Prime Minister has the power as stated in the Constitution, which filed a bill on behalf of the cabinet to the parliament, elect and dismiss members of cabinet including ministers of state, but it also has the authority to oversee the various branches of the administration .


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